"It is by the aid of statistics that law in the social sphere can be ascertained and codified."  (Florence Nightingale, 18201910)
Claudius Ptolemy (Second century A.D.): He produced a cosmological model of the universe that had the earth surrounded by eight concentric spheres that carried the moon, the sun, the five planets known at the time, and the stars (on the outermost sphere). The model was embraced by Christian thinkers since (a) it made Earth the center of the universe (and the center of God's attention), and (b) provided room outside the sphere of stars for Heaven. The Christian Church accepted this earthcentered model for about 1500 years.

What did one of Herkimer's pet fleas say to the other flea when it wanted to go outside? Answer: "Shall we hop or take the dog." Herky's friends: CAL O'REE... he is always concerned about his weight. DEA KLINE... she never accepts things offered to her. 
ASSIGNMENT #32 Reading: Review Sections 5.1 and 5.2, as necessary. Exercises: 5.20, 5.21 5.23, 5.26, 5.28, 5.38, 5.47, 5.48 
You are working with ideas from Sections 5.1 and5.2.
WHAT IS BELOW IS ALSO DISPLAYED ON THE ASSIGNMENT#31 SHEET.
Important words/phrases/thoughts introduced inSection 5.1 are in black. Those in Section 5.2 in are blue. Thereis a bit of overlap, as you will note. These words and phrases shouldbe familiar to you. After reading Sections 5.1 and 5.2, you shouldnot draw a mental blank when you encounter them.
sampling  voluntary response sample  experiment  confounding  statistical inference 
population  sample, sample design  convenience sampling  simple random sample (SRS)  table of random digits 
probability sample  stratified random sample, strata  multistage sample design  undercoverage  nonresponse 
response bias  wording of questions  observational study  experiment  experimental units 
subjects  treatment  placebo effect  control group  bias 
matching  randomization  completely randomized  statistically significant  hidden bias 
PRINCIPLES OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 1. Control ... 2. Randomization ... 3. Replication  
doubleblind experiment  block design  matched pairs design  lack of realism  probability model 
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Text:
The Practice of Statistics, by Yates, Moore, McCabe. New York,W.H. Freeman and Company, 1999. (ISBN 0716733706)
Supplemental books:
The Cartoon Guide to Statistics, by Gonick and Smith. NewYork, HarperCollins Publishers, 1993. (ISBN 0062731025)
How to Lie with Statistics, by Darrell Huff. New York, W.W.Norton & Company, 1982 (ISBN 039309426X)